28Aug 2020

The Emerging Water Treatment Technologies

We are living in an era where technologies are evolving each passing day, and the water treatment industry is nowhere behind. For the first 75 years, the treatment processes included chemical clarification, granular media filtration, and chlorination. Nevertheless, the past two decades have seen a striking change in the water industry’s approach to water treatment. Traditional treatment processes merged with the new emerging technologies.
Technologies for water treatment are evolving each day to meet the increasing demands of this century. Many countries like Europe and the USA have already faced the challenge of upgrading mineral treatment plants, notwithstanding limited room for expansion.


When it was discovered that the cholera epidemic spread through the water back in 1854, British scientists found water pump contamination by sewage water to be the direct cause for the same. They applied chlorine to purify the water, which paved the path for water disinfection. This led governments to install municipal purified mineral water plants and water filters.
During 1890s America began designing large sand filters with regards to protecting public health, which turned into a huge success. Rapid sand filtration was applied over slow sand filtration; the filter capacity improved gradually by cleaning it with powerful jet steam. It is then; they found that rapid sand filtration actually worked a lot better when it was preceded by coagulation and sedimentation techniques. During the time, waterborne illnesses like cholera and typhoid began to drop its levels as water chlorination won terrain throughout the world as the new technology evolved.
Here are a few most major technology trends that have emerged in response to such demands.

Nutrient control

The wastewater treatment facilities have been increasingly required to limit their discharge of phosphorus and nitrogen as well. With technology developing, Biological nutrient removal processes rapidly increased in number over the past 20 years. In order to make this work for some time to come, efforts to make BNR processes more efficient, reliable, and adaptable have begun and included a fixed-film system to reduce footprint.

Membrane processes

The advanced filtration method which relies on a membrane barrier to filter out the contaminants and particles from water is called membrane processes. These membranes include four different types of layers: Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration, and Reverse Osmosis plant. All the four membranes serve the purpose of separating contaminants and organics.

Fixed-Film biological treatment processes

Fixed-film biological treatment processes use a medium such as wood, rock, plastic, or other natural or synthetic solid material that supports biomass within its porous structure or on its surface. Basically, biological wastewater treatment system programs the naturally occurring microbial decomposition process to break down industrial wastewater contaminants in order for them to be removed along with other unwanted materials.

High-rate solids separation

Solid separation reduces the amount of organic material in the water, therefore, reducing the odor. In this technique, removing suspended matter results in the quality of water that is, either on its own or in compliance with discharge criteria when blended with the full-treatment flow.
The peak flows usually require significant site space and high operation costs for cleanings storage facilities, which causes higher odor generation potential and adds to the full treatment sizing requirements.

Disinfection

With the innovations in different industries, chlorine gas release, and confirmed impact of ultraviolet radiation has driven many utilities to turn UV purifiers. With the increasing popularity of UV technology, improvements and innovations are consistently hitting the market. The equipment has its own set of characteristics when it comes to the process of providing purified water.
Water purifier plant experimentation nowadays very much focuses on disinfection by-products—for instance, trihalomethane formation from chlorine disinfection due to being linked to cancer. Concern regarding lead arose after it was discovered to corrode from water pipes. The increased pH level of disinfected water caused corrosion, and today, with evolving technologies, many different materials have replaced lead water pipes.

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