A mere installation of a plant used to purify water and separate it from contaminated substances is a water treatment plant. The contaminated substances comprise a solid, liquid, and semisolid particles that make the water harmful for human consumption. There are different types of water treatment plants installed across the globe and depend on the type of contaminated substance being purified.
For example, a simple packaged drinking water plant by the name itself treats polluted water. On the contrary, effluent treatment plant treats effluent, wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater and sewage treatment plant treats sewage. The industrial process of cleaning a substance and making it viable for human consumption is the primary purpose of a treatment plant. It reduces industrial water consumption and chances of environmental pollution. Plants and machinery generate a high amount of wastewater and finally dump it in the primary source of drinking water.
To make the drinking water fit for healthy living, a drinking water plant collects water from the water source, and treats harmful substances. Treatment plants produce residual chlorine and biosolids that are a challenge to the environment. However, most of it is now processed to keep environmental damage at bay.
Components Of Water Treatment Plant
Given the industrial process of treating water, a water treatment plant comprises of the following:
- Raw water source, for example, and impounding reservoir, lake, or river canal
- Intake well
- Water pumping system
- Cascade aerator
- Alum mixer
- Filter bed washing system
- Sand filters
- Sludge transfer pump
- Sludge removing system
- Chlorine dosing system
- The clear water pumping system
- Clearwater reservoir
- Scada instrumentation system
- Flowmeter and valves
- A laboratory
The components of the drinking water plant are interconnected so that once water is drawn from the primary source, it is readily transferred to the intake well and passed through the water pumping system.
Further, water is treated in the chemical house and filtered using sand filters. The filter bed washing system disinfects water using chlorine and finally is dumped into the clear water reservoir, using the clear water pumping system. Other integral processes take place, for example testing the water at the laboratory for the presence of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms before treating it in the plant. Additionally, the clear water is also tested to ensure that the entire purification system has been performed well and left no residual contaminants, capable of being a threat to human health.
Here we describe some of the components of the water treatment plant for a better understanding.
From the name itself, the intake well functions as a structure to safely withdraw water from the water source and discharge it in the withdrawal conduit. It is present at the beginning of the entire water treatment plant and ensures a constant water supply to keep the treatment process going.
They admit water from different sources, for example, reservoirs, lakes, or canals, and further, convey to the treatment plant.
This may sound surprising but Cascade aerators induct air into the water flow. The purpose of air induction is to oxidize iron and reduce the dissolved gases present in the water of the intake well. Although the dissolved gases cannot be reduced completely, partial reduction leads to convert iron and manganese from the ferrous state to the ferric state before the water is introduced to the filtration process.
The process removes sinkable particles, floating and suspended matter from the water. When water is collected from its raw source, it is made to pass through a fine bed of sand or gravel and particles are removed by way of absorption of physical encapsulation. Any form of water purifier plant occasionally employs sand filters as a final polishing stage.
They are capable of trapping suspended material as well as bacteria floating in the water. The water to be filtered sinks through the sand bed, slowly leaving the residual matter above or within the stand.
Chlorination By The Chlorine Dosing System
Chlorination is one of the common methods employed to treat microorganisms in water. The most common use of chlorine is done in swimming pools. It is a form of disinfectant, whereby the hypochlorite solution is injected into the water.
Even after filtering the water through the sand bed, there are bacteria capable of causing damage to human health. Chlorination helps fight such bacteria floating in the water by way of an advanced dosing system.
SCADA And Instrumentation System
The SCADA system is an advanced technological process that can monitor and control other physical processes involved within an industrial setting. For example, traffic lights, distribution of water, transportation of gas, electricity transmission, oil pipelines, and other processes employed. The primary purpose of the SCADA system is to control equipment that partakes in the production, manufacturing, fabrication, and development of the raw materials.
As is evident from the above description, the packaged drinking water plant is a lengthy and conspicuous one. Several elements need to perform accurately to ensure the final product meets the daily requirements of humans. Besides the filtration components, there are storage tanks, fame tanks, and mix tanks employed to separate water after each process.
If you plan to open a water treatment facility make sure you cater to the basic setup and ensure an adequate supply of raw materials (in this case, water) to continue the operation.